process of Roasting,Baking,Grilling and Braising

Roasting and Baking

To roast mean to cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air, usually in an oven. Cooking on a spit in front of an open fire may also be considered roasting. Roasting usually causes caramelization of the surface of the food, which is considered a flavor enhancement. Meats and most root and bulb vegetables can be roasted. Any piece red meat, that has been cooked in this fashion is called a roast. Also, meats and vegetable this way are described as 'roast', e g. roast chicken or roast squash. Some foods such as coffee a chocolate are always roasted. 

1. A low-temperature oven 95 °C to 160 °C (200 °F to 325 °F) is best when cooking with large cuts of meat, turkey and whole chickens. This is also called slow-roasting
The benefit of it is less moisture loss and a more tender product. More of the collagen that makes meat tough is dissolved in slow cooking.

2. At 200 "C (400 "F) or more, the water inside the muscle is lost at a high rate. Cooking at high temperatures is beneficial if the cut is tender enough (like a filet mignon or strip loin) to be finished cooking before the juices escape.
The reason for high temperature roasting is to brown the outside of the food, similar to browning food in a pan before pot roasting or stewing it. Fast cooking gives more variety of flavor, because the outside is brown while the center is much less done.

3. A combined method uses high heat just at either the beginning or the end of the cooking process, with most of the cooking at a low temperature. This produces the golden-brown texture and crust, but maintains more of the moisture than simply cooking at a high temperature, although the product will not be as moist as low-temperature cooking the whole time.
Searing and then turning down to low is also beneficial when a dark crust and caramelized flavor is desired for the finished product. The outside is brown and the rest is done fairly uniformly.

Baking is a method to cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air, usually in an oven. The most common baked food is rea but many other types of food are also baked.
Here below are the examples of food that can be baked:

1.Baked goods: Cakes, pastries, pies, tarts, quiches, muffins, cookies, scones, crackers, pretzels etc.
2.Meat: meatloaf, smaller cuts of whole meats or whole meats that contain stuffing or coating such as bread crumbs or buttermilk batter.
3.Vegetables: potatoes, apples, beans, casseroles, etc.
4.Pasta dishes such as lasagne.
7.Eggs: soufflé.

Some foods are baked using a method commonly known as slow baking. Foods are surrounded moisture during baking by placing a small amount of liquid (such as water or broth) in the bottom of a closed pan, and letting it steam up around the food. One of these is the method known as en croûte (French for 'in a crust'), which protects the food from direct heat and seals the natural juices inside. Meat, poultry, game, fish or vegetables can be prepared by baking en croûte.


Grilling and Braising

Grilling is a dry-heat cooking method that uses heat from below. Grilling is done on an open grid over a heat source, which may be charcoal, an electric element or a gas-heated element.The terms broiling, grilling and gridling are sometimes confused. Grilling is often called broiling, and griddling is called grilling. Correct way to use this terms is according to the equipment used.

Broiling - done in an overhead broiler

Grilling – done on a grill

Griddling - done on a griddle

Cooking temperature is regulated by moving the items to hotter or cooler places on the grill. Grilled meats should be turned to achieve desired grill marks.

Braising (from the French“braiser”) is cooking with 'moist heat", typically in a covered pot with variable amount of liquid, usually after preliminary brown with the product as a sauce.
The purpose of the browning step is for food to develop color and flavor. Braised meats are usually browned first using a dry-heat method such as pan-frying, This gives a desirable appearance and flavor to the product and sauce.

Braising relies on heat, time, and moisture to successfully break down tough connective tissue and collagens in meat. It is an ideal method of cooking tougher cuts. Many classic braised dishes, such as Coq au Vin, are the result of highly-evolved methods of cooking tough and unpalatable foods. The amount of liquid used depends on how much sauce is needed for service. Pot roasts are cooked in liquid that covers the item by one-third to two thirds. Braising may be done on the range or in the oven.

The 3 main advantages of oven-braising are:

1. Uniform cooking. The heat strikes the braising pot on all sides, not just the bottom.

2. Less attention required. Foods braise at a low, steady temperature without having to be checked

3. Range space is free for other purposes.