fish production

Feeding of Fish

Raising of fish in an enclosure is an example of an intensive method of fish culture. Commercially prepared fish feeds are now available. They also contain the same nutrients that are present in livestock feeds such as protein, carbohydrates, fat, and also vitamins and minerals. Fish meal, meat meal, and some binders which contain carbohydrates are some of the constituents of fish feed. plants and animals found in the bottom of ponds. the bottom of ponds.
The natural food of cultured fish consists of microscopic plants and animals found in the bottom of ponds.

Lab-lab is a greenish-brownish or yellowish material at the bottom of ponds

Lumut consists of filamentous green algae.

Planktons are microscopic plants and animals suspended in water.

Fish Capture

Fish capture is the science and technique of capturing fish and other marine life with the use of a fishing gear. This is an instrument or tool used in catching fish. A gear can be handheld or operated with the use of a fishing boat or a fish trap.
Handheld gears include hook and line, spear, harpoon, scoop, swing net, and cover pot.

A fish trap or corral (baklad) consists of rows of stakes of bamboo or wire netting with easy entrance but difficult exit. It is constructed in areas where the fish are likely to pass or stay to get food.
Boat-operated fishing gears include purse seine and drag seines. Seines are nets that are used to trap and scoop a big school of fish.

Fish Preservation

Fish is one of the most perishable of all foods and needs proper handling from the time it is caught until it is served or processed.

Fresh fish has bright skin with its scales intact, not loose. The eyes are clear, not sunken, and the gills are red. The flesh should be firm and elastic with little slime and a pleasant fresh, fishy odor. The body is rigid, not stiff, and will usually sink in water.

Methods of Preserving Fish

There are different methods of processing fish and shellfish.
These are:

1. chilling and refrigeration
2. freezing
3. Canning
4. curing
5. drying

Chilling, Refrigeration, and Freezing

Only fresh fish should be chilled, refrigerated, or frozen. Chilling is the lowering of temperature of fish approximately 32-36 °F to slow the bacterial and enzymatic changes.
Ice and ice water are used in chilling fish.

Refrigeration is any process whereby a substance is cooled chilled, or frozen. A refrigerator is any box or device that keep things cool

Fresh fish can be preserved at freezing temperature of 4°F 20°F for several months with very little change in quality. However, frozen fish prepared from spoiled fish have a shorter shelf life.
There are two methods of freezing: the fast or quick freezing and the slow freezing.

Quick freezing results in the formation of very small ice crystals in the muscles and gives a firmer fish muscle after thawing, whereas slow freezing forms large ice crystals and gives a softer fish muscle after thawing.


Dried fish is in great demand specially during the typhoon season because there is no available fresh fish at the time. When there is an excess catch of fish like anchovies (dilis), they can be dried right at the seashore using wire mesh, bamboo slots, or fishing nets.
Big fish like tuna are split or filleted so that they dry easily in the sun. Oven lying or air drying of fish inexpensive.


Salt is the most common preservative for fish. However, this method can only preserve the fish for a short time. The action of enzymes and bacteria, which are present in the fish, will eventually cause spoilage of salted fish.
Smoked fish is produced by a combination of salting, drying, and smoking processes. In fermented or pickled fish (bagoong or buro), the salt and enzyme on fish hydrolyze (liquify) the fish tissue to preserve the fish.


Canning is the packing of foods I hermetically sealed containers and obtaining commercial sterility through the use of heat processing. Commercial sterility is defined as the degree of sterility necessary to destroy harmful types of bacteria and prevent spoilage

fish in oil

Let us cook fish in oil (salmon style) without using the pressure cooker. Follow the procedure below using a double boiler or steamed.

I kg fresh fish (hangus, galunggong, or tuna)
brine solution (one-half cup water + one tbsp salt)
onion (chopped)
1/4 tsp black pepper (ground)
1 cup vegetable oil

1. Remove the head, fins, scales, and intestines of fish.
2. Split the fish and remove the bones. Wash the fish.
3. Cut the fish fillet in two pieces (for big fish only).
4. Marinate the fish in brine solution with MSG for 30 minutes.
5. Arrange the fish in the pan then add all ingredients and brine solution. Cover the pan.
6. Cook the fish (15 minutes) in a double boiler o flesh turns creamy white and flakes) steamer. (Fish is cooked when the
7. Evaluate your product.

sardine style

Let us cook fish with tomato sauce (sardine style). Follow the procedure below using a double boiler or steamer.

1 kg fresh fish [hangus, galunggo (big), or tuna]
brine solution (one-half cup water + one tbsp. salt)
garlic and onion (chopped)
tomato paste (1 can)
¼ tsp black pepper ground)
1 cup vegetable oil
5 pcs hot pepper

1.Remove the h head, fins, scales, and intestine of fish.
2.Split the fish and remove the bones. Wash the fish.
3.Marinate the fish in brine solution with MSG for 30 minutes before cooking.
4.Arrange the fish in the pan then add ll ingredients.
5.Cook the fish (15 minutes) in a double boiler or steamer. (Fish is cooked when the flesh turns creamy white and flakes.)
6. Evaluate your product.