Harvesting, Cultivation and Warehousing







Weeding and Cultivation

Weeds are wild plants that grow and compete with planted crops for soil nutrients. They must be destroyed by pulling them out including their roots. Weeding should be done regularly because weeds grow much faster than planted crops.


Cultivation means loosening or breaking up around each plant to allow the soil to spread and get more nutrients in the soil. Cultivation should not be so deep as to touch the roots.

Harvesting Fruits and Vegetables

Fruits and vegetables will command good prices in the market if they are proper selected. Harvesting them on time is very important since unripe or overripe fruits and vegetables may not be saleable in the market.

Here are some pointers in harvesting fruits and vegetables:

1. Fruits must be harvested when they are fully mature but not ripe. Mangoes, papaya, banana, avocado, and lanzones will ripen slowly while in storage. Use baskets or wooden crates as containers of fruits to protect them from bruises.

2. Leafy vegetables can be harvested when they have enough leaves. They should be gathered early in the morning, washed, trimmed, and then marketed immediately on the same day.

3. Different fruits and vegetables have different harvest time.

Here is a guide on when to harvest vegetables.

1. Okra - gather when big enough but young and tender

2. Eggplant- gather before the seeds begin to develop

3.Tomatoes - gather when they are already mature but not ripe.

4. Cucumbers- harvest just before the seeds begin to form

5. String beans and other beans - gather before the pods mature and become tough and stringy
6. Sweet peppers - pick while green

7. Red pepper- -pick when skin turns red

8. Sweet potatoes and turnips -gather when vines begin to die

9. Squash - gather the fruit when seeds have developed

10. Kundol, upo, and patola- -gather just before the seeds begin to develop



Marketing of Fruits and Vegetables

The marketing of fruits and vegetables is a risky business because they are perishable and spoil esily.
Since these products come from the provinces, they require good transportation facilities to bring them to the market and to the ultimate consumers as soon as baskets, possible. Containers such as wooden crates, baskets plastic bags, and sacks may be used.
Uniformity in size, appearance, and freshness of the product are factors that affect the cost of fruits and vegetables.

Warehousing and Storage of Grains

It takes millions of pesos to construct warehouses to keep grains from deterioration and attack of insects and other pests. With modern post-harvest technology, especially on the care of grain stocks, there are now portable warehouses, which can be used by farmers and traders to keep rice and other grain stocks from exposure to elements and pests. Some portable Warehouses are made of plastic material.

A seed bank is a place or farm where different varieties of plants are planted for their seeds, for sale to farmers. You can also have a seed bank in the school. The seeds you I gather can be donated to farmers in the provinces.

How to Prepare the Seeds

Do not throw away those overripe or rotten tomatoes, ampalaya, squash, or eggplant
Remove the seeds and wash them very well. Dry the seeds and put them in individual plastic bag or paper pouch. Label your seed. Put at least 10-20 seeds per bag.



Growing Rice

Learn to grow rice in plastic or aluminum containers. Follow the procedure below.

Materials:

palay seeds (100)
plastic or aluminum basin (18 inches in diameter)
clay soil - to fill half of the basin
fertilizer (complete)

Procedure:

1. Select quality palay seeds. Put soil in the basin.
2. Plant the seeds in the clay soil and add water soak it. Put the basin in sunny area. Be sure that the plant has enough water every day.
3. When the seeds have germinated, add only 1/2 tsp complete fertilizer, once a week. Plants should have enough water. Do not allow the soil to dry. Do not put too much fertilizer.
4. Measure how fast the palay grows every day.
5. Record your observation.


Insects and Other Pests and Diseases

In order to grow healthy plants, make sure there are no plants, enemies in the garden or farm. The pest and diseases, which attack plants, may be grouped into the following:

1. Insects that bite or chew their food - They can be controlled by the application of tobacco dust and dry lime.

Examples: beetles and cabbage worms

2, Insects that puncture the surface of the plant and obtain their food by suction - They are destroyed by the application of kerosene and soap emulsion.

Examples: lice and scale insects

3. Parasitic fungi - They attack the leaves, stems, and fruits. Plants with fungi must be removed or isolated from healthy plants.

Examples: leaf blights, mildew, rust

4. Germs and viruses - Pruning and rotation of crops are
recommended to avoid these pests.

5. Slugs and snails - They multiply very fast during the rainy to collect season. and They burn them. cat the leases and stems of plants. The best way to control them is to collect and burn them.



Bottle Garden (Terrarium)

If there is no available space in the house or in the school to plant, a bottle garden or terrarium is recommended. A terrarium is a covered enclosed miniature garden like a bottle garden. It is a miniature greenhouse because within it plants have almost ideal conditions to grow. A bottle garden needs only bright light. It can be placed anywhere in the house--kitchen, living room, or bathroom.
 




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