LIVESTOCK RAISING






Livestock Production

Animal farming is considered a major industry in the country, Animals raised for food are called Livestock. At present, the country's production of animal protein is still below self-sufficient levels. Filipinos depend on importation of animal products to fill their need.

As population grows and people become more conscious about proper nutrition, the demand for more meat as a source of protein could rise, especially for growing children. Meat is still the preferred source of protein because of its taste compared to fish and vegetables.

Learning how to raise animals or livestock in the backyard will greatly add to the source of animal protein in our diet and minimize the importation of this product. Animal husbandry is a branch of agriculture that deals with the selection, breeding, production, management, and marketing of farm animals. The primary concern of animal husbandry is raising cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry for food production.


Factors to Consider in Livestock

Farming

Here are some factors to consider in livestock farming

1. Capitalization

Some resources or capital such as money and materials are needed to have a livestock farm. The amount of capital varies according to the number of livestock raise. The more animals to raise, the bigger the capital. Funds are primarily for housing, feeds, and the stock or animal to be raised. The availability of adequate capital alone is not enough assurance of a successful business operation.

2. Technical Know-how

While expertise is not a definite requirement to get started, some degree of familiarity with raising a particular animal will certainly be helpful. If you intend to raise a pig, then at least she/he should know how to take care of it until the marketable age.

3. Market Assurance

Who is going to buy the stock or products? If layers are raised, then the eggs must be sold every day. They cannot be stored for a long period of time. Broilers have to be marketed at seven to eight weeks of age because they become less efficient feed converters at an older age.

Developments in Livestock Production

The application of biotechnology in animal breeding has Caused the development of new breeds of animals. These are:

1. Pigs and chicken that grow faster with less feeds

2. Cows that give more milk every day

3. Cattle that has more lean meat than fat

4. Hens that lay low-cholesterol eggs


Swine Raising

Swine raising involves the care of pigs for meat purposes production of piglets for sale
The mother pig or hog is called a sow or dam and the young female pig is called a gilt. A male pig is called a boar and a newly born pig is called a piglet.

The following factors are favorable conditions which

1.make swine raising a profitable venture. Pigs are profit. They produce two litters per year. A multi part animal gives birth to more than one offspring at one time. A litter refers to the young produced at one birth by a multi part mammal.

2. Pigs are efficient converters of vegetable trimmings, kitchen leftovers, kangkong leaves, and rice bran.

3. Pigs are ready to market in about six to seven months fattening period, while cattle is fattened for more than a year.

4. In most farms where only a small fraction of the farmer's time is devoted to crop production, swine raising can provide family employment throughout the year. 
Among the popular breeds of swine are Large White. Poland China, Durok Jersey, Chester White, and Berkshire.

Cattle Raising

Cattle raising involves the production of cattle for milk or meat. Cattle are raised in pastures where there are plenty of grass. They can also be raised by the feedlot method, where the animal is confined and fed with molasses, concentrates, and grass. Cattle raised for milk is called dairy cattle. Cattle raised for meat is called beef cattle. The female mature cattle are called a cow. The cow gives milk. A Male cattle is called a bull. A newly born cattle is called a calf. Among the common breeds of dairy cattle are Jersey, Holstein, and Guernsey. Angus, Hereford, man, and Santa Gertrudis are the common breeds of beef cattle.

Goat Raising

You will only need a small capital in goat raising. It is easy to raise goats since they thrive on grass and ordinary shelter. Goat's meat is also delicious although it is not as popular as chicken, beef, and pork. The goat's milk is also used in the manufacture of cheese and ice cream.

Rabbit Raising

Rabbits are used for the production of meat, fur, and mohair. Fur is the fine, short fibers and relatively long, coars guard hairs In rabbit. Mohair is the hair from rabbits and goats. The fiber from sheep is called wool. Compared to other animals, rabbits produce 13 to 15 times its body weight per year, while a pig produce 10 times its body weight, cattle, 0.9 times body weight per year; and lamb, 1.25 to 1. 5 times its body weight per year.

Poultry Raising

Here are some commonly raised poultry:

1. Chicken

The native chicken is the most commonly raised bird in the farm. It is small but sturdy. It does not need special feed and care. It thrives on leftover rice, palay, and corn.

There are two (2) types of chicken commercially raised in the country.

a.    The layer type - which is raised for egg production. It lays bigger eggs every day than ordinary native chickens. Example: White leghorn

b.     The broiler as much type as - which raised more for within meat. seven It is weeks.                   Examples: fast-growing. Hubbard, It can

3. Turkey

Turkey raising is also a profitable business. A turkey is also sturdy and will thrive on grass and grains like palay and corn. Roast turkey is usually served during Thanksgiving Day in the US

4. Quails

Boiled quail eggs are common snack food sold in bus terminals. A quail egg is delicious and nutritious just like chicken egg. Quails thrive on grass and poultry feeds containing ground corn, fish meal, and soya. Specific Culture of Different Animals Other animals may also be raised on the farm. 

1. Aviculture -recreational, or scientific purposes
 
2. Apiculture - keeping bees for production of honey and wax

3. Sericulture - raising silkworms for their silk

 




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