Agriculture and Engineering






AGRICULTURAL ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY

Farming today is not limited to growing only of food crops or livestock, but also in the culture of flowering plants and herbal plants as well as in the trading or mark agricultural crops.
The culture of exotic birds and the breeding of dogs, horses, cats, and tropical fish are also profitable business that requires scientific know ledge in animal husbandry. The culture of freshwater and saltwater fish requires scientific and technological application of aquaculture.
With the use of modern instruments and machinery and he application of biotechnology specially in the field of Genetic engineering, agriculture has become a sophisticated high-technology industry.

Agricultural Technology

The words agriculture comes from the Latin words ager meaning field and cultural meaning care.
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating and producing crops, and raising poultry, livestock, and fish.
The practice of agriculture is called farming. A person engaged in farming is called a farmer. Farming is not a lowly Job. Farming has brought so many changes in man's life since prehistoric
time. The application of technology in the science of agriculture has resulted in greater production of food crops, such as wheat, corn, rice, and livestock that supplies more meat, milk, and eggs for the growing population.

Here are some ways of classifying agriculture.

1.Economic Classification - Examples: commercial and subsistence farming
2. Classification by Producer - Example: livestock production or fish culture
3. Classification by Farming Methods - Example: hydroponics or irrigation farming


Where Agriculture Began

Farming probably started in 10000-8000 BC in the Middle East, in the countries of Lebanon and
Got Iraq. There are also other important areas in the world where agriculture developed.
1. Southeast China near the Yangtze River
2. Central Africa near modern-day Kenya
3. The highland area of Middle America in Central Mexico, Peru, and Bolivia.
4. Along the Nile River in Egypt
5. Along the Danube River in Europe
6. Southeastern Asia in Thailand
7. Indus River of India and Pakistan
8. Tehuacan Valley of Mexico

The earliest tools of farmers were of wood and stone. Grain was a basic food crop for the first farmer more than 10,000 years ago.

Agriculture: Today and Tomorrow

With more people to feed and not enough good land to grow plants, farmers have to make the most of each plant in order to produce more food for the growing population.
With the application of biotechnology, agriculture is now a high-technology industry, especially in the field of genetic engineering.
Biotechnology is a technique that uses living organisms to make or modify a product to improve plants or animals.


Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering simply means that farmers change the cells in the seeds of plants, so that plants would grow the way farmers want them.
Here are some developments in crop production which resulted from the application of genetic engineering.

1.Bigger leaves of lettuce, cabbage, and other leafy vegetables.

2.Bigger roots of carrots, radishes, potatoes, sugar beets, and other root crops

3. Bigger and sweeter fruits like the guava-apple variety. Some fruits like orange and watermelon may not have seeds. Some sour fruits tamarind have sweet varieties now, such as the Thailand variety.

4. Dwarf fruit trees bear as much fruits as the tall ones.

5. Soybeans and peanuts have higher protein content.

6. Hydroponics farming is more
economical in terms of space and the use of fertilizer and pesticide.


Economic Classification of Agriculture


Farms and other agricultural enterprises are usually classified as:
produces crops primarily for sale rather

1.Commercial Farm- than for the use of the farmer like the Dole and Del Monte farms.

2. Subsistence Farm - produces items primarily for the use of

3. Diversified Farm - produce a variety of crops and livestock

4. Contract Farming or Growing - Is a system where some the farmer than for sale to others food companies select farmers to produce a certain kind of crop solely for the use of the company.

Example: Contract growing of broiler chicken-company provides everything such as chicks, feeds, and medicine while the farmer provides the housing and takes care of the chicks until they are ready for market, which takes about seven weeks.
 

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