methods of farming and planting





Types of Farming Methods

Farming methods in agriculture may be classified according to the general techniques used.


1. Dry Farming - It is practiced where rainfall is slight and irrigation is impractical. It involves the use of soil moisture conservation and drought-resistant crops.

2. Greenhouse Culture - It is the growing of plants throughout the year, even during winter or hot season. Tropical and subtropical plants are grown together in a building called a greenhouse. The temperature and climatic condition inside the greenhouse is controlled to fit the required growth conditions of the plants.

3. Hydroponics or Tank Farming - The growing of plants without soil is called tank farming or hydroponics. A solution of chemical compound is used to provide the necessary nutrient required for plant growth.

4. Irrigation Farming - An irrigation system is used to distribute water to all parts of the land. Irrigation is very important for crops like rice and corn. There are two type of irrigation systems: the ground sprinkler and overhead type. The water source may be a stream. although water can be spread in a greater area and the pipes are less subject to corrosion. Overhead sprinkles is more expensive.

5. Organic Gardening - It is the growing of plants without the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

6. Mixed or Integrated Farming - This involves the growing of different crops in one place to maximize the use of the land. Examples: rice and fish culture, onion and strawberry, rose and onion, coconut, ginger, and pepper.


Where to Plant

Farmers are very particular in choosing the proper site for planting. The following factors should be considered in selecting the site for planting

1. Types of soil and condition of the soil surface
2. Water, irrigation, and fertilizer
3. Climate and rainfall
4. Transportation
5. Peace and order
6. Availability of labor

Types of Soil

There are different types of soil: clay, sandy, and loam.
Plants have particular soil requirements to grow.

1. Clay Soil - This soil is ideal for the culture of rice because it holds water and allows the growth of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms in the water like the blue green algae.

2. Sandy Soil - This soil does not hold water and is deficient in organic matter. Corn and sugarcane grow well in sandy and silty soil. This soil needs additional amount of organic matter, such as rice hull and chicken manure.

3. Loam Soil - This kind of soil is rich in organic matter. It is ideal for most plants like vegetables and ornamental plants. The condition of the soil surface refers to its cultivable depth or the topsoil. The topsoil should be level and not undulating like a hill in order to hold water uniformly, Plant should be able to penetrate the soil in order to reach for more soil nutrients. Trees need thick topsoil to be able to stand strong wind.


Fertilizer

There are two (2) types of fertilizer:

1. Organic fertilizer- is prepared from organic sources Such as manure and decayed plants and animals. The composition of organic fertilizer varies with the organic components.
2. Inorganic fertilizers - are chemically prepared using chemical elements with specific composition. Examples: Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K)

Water and Irrigation
Water is a vital factor in the growth of plants. Irrigation water must be free from toxic or poisonous material which are absorbed by plants including the other chemicals in the soil.

Climate and Rainfall
Rainfall is influenced by the climate. Strong winds and heavy rainfall can damage crops resulting to poor production. Rice and other grain crops require full sunshine.

Transportation
There should be a good road system from the farm to the market in order to facilitate the transport and movement of agricultural products from the producer to the consumer. Farm roads must be passable at all times of the year.

Peace and Order
It is necessary to maintain peace and order in the farm to foster progressive and profitable farming in all parts of the country.

Availability of Labor
A farmer may do all the job in the farm. He can also hire helpers to do land preparation, seed sowing, transplanting. Fertilizer application, and harvesting.



Importance of Good Seed

A good seed is essential for a successful crop production while poor seed is a serious farm hazard. Introduction of weeds in the seed often increases the labor for production of the crop and reduces crop yield.

Seed Crops


There are two ways of planting seed crops: direct seeding and transplanting.

1. Direct Seeding Method
 Seeds are planted directly in the field to save on labor. Directly seeded plants do not undergo root damage and transplanting shock. Examples: peanuts, squash, upo, patola, amplaya, sayote, corn, okra, spinach, string beans, mung bean, etc.

2. Indirect Seeding or Transplanting Method
Seeds are planted in seed boxes or seedbed before they are transplanted in the field.
This method requires extra care in order not to damage the roots. Example: pechay,
tomato, cabbage, eggplant, pepper, mustard, rice, etc.

Planting Seeds

Big farms use modern tractors or combine to plant seed in tracts of land. A modern farm machinery can save labor and time especially if the weather is not always favorable and the farmer is alone in doing all the planting job.

The common methods of planting seeds in the field are:

1. Sabog tanim - is done when the field is already prepared for planting rice. The palay seed is broadcast manually or with the use of helicopter on wet soil without control on plant space and soil depth. Mung bean seeds are also planted this w way on a prepared dry soil.
2. Drill Planting
A drill is a small furrow made for planting seeds in a row, such as corn and peanuts.
3. Hill Planting
Some seeds (about three to four pieces) are planted on evenly spaced hills which are 30 to 40 centimeters in diameter. The hill will protect the plants like watermelon and squash, from being waterlogged on rainy days.

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