The Alphabet

The modern alphabet is one of the greatest works of the human mind and the cause growth of civilization. The alphabet is a system of characters where signs or symbols to indicate letters or speech sounds.

The word alphabet was derived from the first and second Greek letters, alpha (A) and beta (B). The first alphabet was created by the Semites in 1600 BCE. It was later adopted by the Phoenicians who used hieroglyphics (picture writing). The Babylonians used the Cuneiform (wedge-shape).

The primitive Filipinos used hieroglyphics derived from Sanskrit, the ancient language of India. The Japanese and Chinese use characters in their writing. A character is an example of the ideogram, showing symbols for an object, action, or quality of the word. The Chinese use Some 8,000 characters, each of which represents a complete word.
 The Japanese script contains almost 40,000 characters, but only 2,000 are in general use. The Chinese and Japanese eras are usually written vertically from top to bottom, starting at the right side of the paper.

Lettering the Alphabets

Lettering is the process of putting letters on something by inscribing, printing, painting, or engraving.
As part of technical illustration, lettering can be accomplished by using techniques and mechanical lettering devices. The freehand lettering technique allows the artist to generate new lettering style if needed, and the freedom to use a variety of hand lettering instruments, such as speed ball pen, technical lettering pen, felt-tipped pen, pencil, charcoal stick, brush, watercolor, and oil paint, as well as pen and ink.
In mechanical drawing, the use of instruments in freehand lettering gives an accurate, neat, and uniform letters. Each letter has its form and sequence of strokes.

The Single-stroke Method

In the single-stroke method of lettering, the lines must have a beginning and ending, and must not fade near the end. Single stroke means that once the stroke is made, it should not be repeated. To make a single-stroke lettering, the hand position must not change even when making horizontal strokes.

There are 26 letters in the alphabet, and 10 numerals, making a total of 36 letter formations. To achieve good lettering, these factors must be considered. The instrument with which the letter is to be made. Use the right pen for every letter style.

 Form or shape of the letter
 Be familiar with the form and shape of letters. G, C. M. O, and O Q are wider than the remaining letters. The technique employed to execute good lettering. Keep in mind that a stroke must be rapid and must have a definite beginning and on end.

Mechanical Devices for Lettering
Mechanical devices, such as lettering templates, are also available to generate hand-lettered images. Another type of lettering device is a template with metal style that traces the Image of the letters. This type of lettering device usually allows the artist to change the lettering style from vertical to mechanical by adjusting the relative position between the stylus and the pen.

Tools and Materials for Letter
The style tools and size materials of pen that used will in lettering reduce are their the same eleents as those with used the in fewest drawing. strokes in lettering, must b chosen. There is a speedbag designed for each of the different styles of alphabets with different sizes in each pen style.
Hall lettering inks are available in different colors. The pen is dipped to fill reservoirs and slid along the neck of the h bottle to remove excess ink. Some inks are placed in cartridges. There are pens with cartridge barrels. Instructions on how to use them should be carefully followed.

Types of Speed ball Points

There are different types of speed ball point designed to produce the required stroke for the different styles of letters.

1. A- STYLE Designed to produce square poster type letters with single stroke; available in 6 sizes.

2. B-style - for single-stroke round Gothic letters, for drawing and sketching: 8 sizes.

3. C-style - This duplicates strokes of the flexible hand-cut reed pen for the Roman and Italic 
alphabets with thick and thin elements; available in 7 sizes. Left-handed style C are also available.

4. D-style- with oval marking tip used for the Roman alphabet with "thick and thicker" elements; 7 sizes.

Posture and Positions
Posture is very important in the proper maintenance of the eye an back muscles. One should sit comfortably in chair in front of a desk c a drawing board or piece of a board tipped to 45" angle is ideal but not necessary.
Both feet are placed firmly on the floor as the body leans slightly forward. All tools should be within easy reach. The pen is held in a most comfortable position to keep lettering even and to prevent fatigue. The hand should be in relaxed position with the fingers only slightly curved.Excessive pressure on the pen or paper prevent the smooth formation of lines and spaces necessary fine writing.

Tips for the Left-handed
Left-handed persons, have to adjust their writing style to avoid smearing the ink in words they have just written. Most left-handed writers use one or more of the three 3) methods below.

1. Use special oblique nibs, with the paper slanted slightly to the left side.

2. Correct pen angle can be achieved with the conventional straight nib if the paper is slanted radically to the left.

3. Position the paper at a 45" greater angle to the body, with the bottom of the page the right, attacking the line of writing from the top of the page.

Proficiency in Lettering
There is no other way to gain proficiency in lettering except p by the willingness to practice correctly. Here are some pointers to keep in mind when performing basic exercises,

1.use a smooth surface paper or cardboard for practice alphabet your
2. Rule the top and bottom guideline
3. Hold your work in place with your left hand while lettering with the right hand. Do not tack or clip the paper/card.
4. Hold your pen firmly between the two fingers and thumb as close to the working tip as the holder will allow.
S. Work with full am stroke and keep the tip of the pen flat on the paper. Do not contract your fingers. Rest an instant at the end of the stroke.

The Four Basic Groups of Letters

1. Gothic Letters are composed of uniform width elements and are sometimes referred to as the letters of the basic alphabet. They may be made inclined or vertical. The vertical form n is p preferred, specially in engineering plans and working drawings used in school and industry.

2. Roman Letters - are characterized by broad vertical strokes and comparatively thin horizontal strokes. The classic forms of the letters H have been designed upon very accurate mathematical measurements.

3. Text Letters - These are considered the most beautiful of all forms because of their decorations.

4. Script Letters - The lettering style belongs to the longhand styles of writing. They are used in combination with the old English e style in slants citations to the and right. diplomas. When the Gothic italic and is a type Roman of letters letter that are slanted to the right, they may be classified as Italic letters. Advertising and editorial layout, italic is used to gives elegance and beauty.