food preparation and where to buy food

Food Preparation and methods of cooking

Before food is cooked, the raw materials go through several processes like separation of the edible from the inedible parts - cleaning, washing, cutting, and drying.
1.       Pare- -to remove the outer coating with a sharp knife as thinly as possible.
2.       Peel- to pull off a piece of the skin.
3.       Scrape - to shave thinly as done with carrots and
4.       Braise - to cook by steam trapped and held in a
5.       Roast- to cook in a roaster or open fire.
6.       Shell- to remove the hard cover or shell.
Examples: shrimps, peanuts
7.       Stew - to cook slowly over low, even heat with just enough water to cover the food. Tough cuts of meat are softened in this way.
8.       Sauté -to cook in a little oil, usually with garlic, onions, tomatoes, and ginger.
9.       Fry to cook in hot oil.
Examples: fried fish, chicken, or meat
10.   Broil - to cook over live charcoal. To avoid burning, some foods are wrapped in banana leaves.
11.Bake to cook in an oven.
12.Boil- to cook in liquid.

Effects of Cooking on Food Quality

There are some changes in the physical and chemical properties of fresh meat, fish, and vegetable during cooking.

1. Color -  Some foods change in colors change when cooked.

a. Meat- The pink and red colors change into brown when cooked.
b. Green leafy vegetables - Proper cooking will darken the green color and overcooking
will turn green into brown
c. Shrimp and crabs - Cooking will give a red
d. Fish - Flesh will tum from silvery white to creamy white.
2. Texture -Cooking softens the fiber of fruits and vegetables and also the connective tissues of meat and fish. Meat and milk will coagulate when they are heated.
3. Microbial content - Most bacteria and parasites are killed by proper cooking.
4. Enzymes- Fresh foods such as meat, vegetables, and fruits, contain enzymes.
Enzymes are responsible for the ripening of fruits and also the softening and deterioration of
fish and meat. They are also responsible for the rotting of vegetables and fruits
Enzymes are inactivated at temperatures below freezing point but are very active at room temperature. Cooking at high temperature can destroy the enzyme

5. Digestibility - Many foods are more easily digested when cooked. The softening of connective tissues and cellulose fiber helps in the digestion of vegetables and other foods.
6. Nutritive values - The mineral and Vitamin content of food is often reduced cooking. hen vegetables are boiled in water, some of the minerals and vitamins are dissolved and are lost when the liquid is drained off. Vegetables that are cooked in a short time may retain as much as 95% of their vitamins and minerals. Broiled and roasted meats retain 65%y to 70% of thiamine.

Where to Buy Food

There are big and small markets in almost every town. One can go marketing for convenience or for economy depending on the purpose and budget.
1. Wet markets have fresh fish and vegetables. They have a wide selection of food items and they sell in bulk. Sometimes one can make a bargain with the vendor.
2. Cooperatives are operated not for profit. They sell products at cheaper prices.
3. Convenience stores are like sari-sari stores which offer products generally at higher prices,
4. Delicatessen or deli stores provide ready-made food that can be cater immediately.

Food Labels
Food labels allow the buyer to compare food for ingredients, price, quality, and nutritive
value and to choose the products that best suit one’s needs.