Cooking and Menu

Cooking Tips

There are different steps and styles of cooking foods. Raw food changes in physical appearance when cooked.

Here are some tips when cooking.

1.Milk and Cheese

When milk is heated, some of the protein sticks to the bottom and sides of the pan, so
that scorching will occur. Fresh milk should be pasteurized, not boiled.

2. Eggs

Eggs must be cooked in simmering, not boiling water. Eggs are used in the preparation of food, as a binding agent in meat loaf, coating mix in fried meat and chicken, thickening agent in custards and pies, and leavening agent in cakes. It is also used as an emulsifier of oil in the preparation of mayonnaise. Because foods of the egg and meat groups are protein in nature, the general rule of many dishes of these groups are the same.
When raw liquid egg mixture is cooked, it becomes solid. This is called coagulation.

3. Meats

There are different cuts of meat. Tender cuts of meat have little amount of connective tissues and fat. They are usually broiled e or roasted. Moist heat is used f for less tender cuts of meat and poultry. A pot roast is an example of moist heat cookery. Dry heat is used in broiling and frying.
Meat is also made tender by grinding as in hamburger and meat loaf. Tenderizer may also be added to fresh meat to soften it and shorten the cooking time. Meat also coagulate when cooked.

4.Vegetables and Fruits

Properly cooked vegetables should be fork-tender, yet slightly firm and crisp. They should not be mushy or soft. Neither hard nor tough. The color of the Vegetable remains attractive if it is not overcooked. Depending' on one's choice, vegetables may be cooked by boiling, steaming, deep-fat frying, sautéing, or broiling. Peelings of fruits and vegetables are removed as thinly as possible. Fruits and vegetables should be peeled and cut just before cooking. They should not be soaked in water. Cooked vegetables should be served promptly. Cooking ahead of time and reheating should be avoided. Overcooked vegetables and fruits lose vitamin C or ascorbic acid.

5. Fish and Seafood

Fish has a limited amount of connective tissues and are more tender than meat. It requires shorter
cooking time before it flakes. Either dry-heat or moist-heat methods may be used satisfactorily in preparing fish. Dry-heat methods include baking, frying and broiling, Wet or moist methods include Shellfish such as oyster and mussel must be boiling, steaming, and poaching. cleaned very well before cooking to remove the mud crabs, or can dirt. be cooked Crustaceans, in a variety such of as ways

6. Cereals and Noodles

Cereals such as rice, mung bean, corn, and wheat are cooked in boiling water. Macaroni and spaghetti are also cooked in boiling water. A little oil is added to the Water to prevent noodles from sticking together.

Meal Planning

Meal planning requires some cooking techniques, a good knowledge of nutrition, and e a regular budget. Planning meals for the family is usually the responsibility of the homemaker.

Benefits of Meal Planning

There are many benefits of planning meals for the family aside from savings in money.

1.Creating a variety of food - One's creativity can be shown in her/his own version of some special dishes.
2. Cooking or trying out new recipes - One can substitute or discover new food Ingredients.
Example: canned evaporated milk instead of coconut milk in cooking food with coconut milk
3. Using leftover - Examples: fried rice with some
4. Preparing meals in advance to save time.
5. Using less energy in making trips to market and
6. Eliminating last minute decision on what to eat.


A menu is a meal plan. It includes all the food served at the meal. Meals are divided into courses.
A course refers to the food served at the same time within a meal.
Examples: Main Course (fish, meat, vegetable salad, bread) Dessert Course (fruit salad, ice cream, juice)
Pointers in Meal Planning

Here are some pointers to consider in planning a menu in order to provide good nutrition to all members of the family.
1. Family Size
How big is the family?
Generally, the bigger the family, the more food and the longer the time of preparation is needed.
2. Age of Family Members
Babies, young and growing children, and old people require different foods and different serving sizes.
3. Activity of Family Members
The physical activities of family members influence the food required in the menu. Active people who do strenuous physical work need more calories, larger food servings, and more in-between snacks than those doing only office work.
4. Food Preferences
People from n different provinces have their own food preferences. Those coming from Southern Region like Bicol and Quezon have preference for food with coconut milk. People from the different Region have preference for food.
5. Time
Time is important in preparing food. A simple meal, which includes boiled or fried food, takes only shorter time to prepare.
6. Special Diets
Some members of the family may be on a diet because they are sick (diabetic or hypertensive) It is important to also consider their special diets in planning a good meal for the family.

7. Food Budget
The budget is an important consideration in planning a menu. If the budget is limited, less expensive food prepared. Pork can be a substitute for beef. Fish or shellfish can be a substitute for meat, as in seafood
8. Good Nutrition
The menu should include all the basic food groups to ensure that all the nutrients needed by the body are provided in the diet.