Building and structure of the farm







The Farm

There are two (2) important factors to consider in building or making a livestock farm. 

1. the site
 
2. the building materials and structure


A. The Farm Site

A good farm site should not be flooded and must have a good drainage system. It should be far from residential and populous area and it should have enough space for future expansion. It must be accessible to sources of water, electricity, and transportation.

B. The Building and Structure

Here are some guidelines in building animal houses:
1. Construct the housing according to the needs of the animal. Wire cages are recommended for chickens. A concrete floor is good for pigs.

2. If possible, use only local materials. pensive materials such as bamboo can be used as flooring for chickens instead of chicken wire.

3. Use sturdy materials. Hog raising requires sturdy materials for housing like concrete flooring instead of bamboo floors.

4. The housing should be easily cleaned and maintained. Slotted bamboo floors are easy to maintain. This is ideal for chicken cages. Hogs require constant cleaning of their pens to avoid diseases. A concrete floor is easily w washed and cleaned.

5. There should be a proper place for disposing of waste materials. Chicken manure can be dried and sold as fertilizer. Hog manure can be treated in digested tanks and used as of fuel, gas, and fertilizer.

How Animals Grow

Growth is a complex phenomenon. It begins shortly after the egg is fertilized and continues until the animal reaches its mature size.

Growth rate is influenced by both external and internal factors.

The most important external factor that influences growth is nutrition. Animals that do not receive sufficient quantity of food and take in improper diet do not grow well.


The two (2) internal factors that affect growth are inheritance

A hormone is a chemical secretion from the endocrine gland that is carried in the blood stream to other parts of the body where it exerts a specific effect like growth. Inheritance varies among animals which explains why some animals grow bigger than others
Farm animals undergo specific phase of growth.

1. Prenatal Growth (Before birth)

Animals that produce several young have smaller fetuses. Pigs and goats are generally smaller in size because they give birth to younger. Cattle and carabao produce only one young per calving season.
2. Pre-weaning Growth (Nursing period)

The growth of young animals in the pre-caning or morning period is highly influenced by the quality of the milk provided by the mother. When very large items of pig’s growth are for produced them. by a sow, this she is the may reason be unable why to there produce smaller sufficient piglets milk in for the e same litter.

3. Post-weaning Growth

Post-weaning growth occurs between weaning and the slaughter period. During the post-weaning period, male animals grow more rapidly than female animals. The kind of feeds given to the animals during this period must be nutritious, so that the animals will grow faster and bigger. A runt is an animal that is smaller than others of its kind. Malnourished animals usually become runts.

4. fattening 

The increase is not growth, in weight because of a there mature is no animal net increase due to in body This protein. is one As phenomenon animals grow of the older aging they process.

5. Maturity

How Feeds Are Digested and Absorbed. Animals obtain substances needed for all body functions from the feeds hey eat and the liquids they drink. The feed that is taken in must be digested in order to be absorbed by the

Animals are classified as carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores, according to the type of feed that they normally eat.

1. Carnivores

Animals such as dogs and cats are carnivores s because they eat animal tissue as their source of S nutrients. These animals are monogastric, meaning their stomach is simple and has only one compartment.

2. Omnivores

Omnivorous animals like pigs consume both plant and animal tissues. Both pigs and humans are omnivores and both are monogastric. They tend to eat large quantities and have the tendency to become obese. Humans can control their food intake, whereas pigs eat freely as long as there is available feed.

3. Herbivores

Herbivores, such as cattle, sheep, goats, and horses, consume only plant tissues. Herbivorous animals may be monogastric, like horse, and rabbit, and guinea pig. Some are ruminants, meaning their stomach is complex and Contains four compartments. The carabao and cattle are ruminants. The four compartments of a ruminant stomach are the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. Animals that have four compartments in the stomach eat or forage rapidly and later leisurely regurgitate it and chew it again. The regurgitation and chewing of undigested feed is known as rumination.

Nutrients and Their Functions

There are two (2) classifications of animal feeds:

Concentrates

Concentrates include cereal grains (com, wheat, barley, Soybean, and cottonseed), and fish meal. They are low in fiber and high in energy and other nutrients. They are also highly digestible.
Roughage includes grass, straw, hay, leaves, and silage. These are less digestible because of the high fiber content. Animals also need proper nutrients for growth and development. A nutrient is a chemical substance which is absorbed from the digestive tract and travels through the bloodstream to all parts of the body for use in metabolism.

1. Protein

Protein contains amino acids which are the building blocks for growth, milk production, and cell and tissue production. Soybean, milk, fish meal, and meat meal are feedstuff that are rich in protein.

2. Carbohydrate and Fat

The primary function of both carbohydrate and fat is to provide energy for the animal.
Carbohydrates are absorbed into the body from the small intestines as monosaccharides (glucose). Fats are absorbed into the body as fatty acids and glycerides. Molasses, corn, wheat, and barley are rich sources of carbohydrates. Copra meal and tallow are good sources of fat for animal feeds.

3. Minerals

Animals also need some minerals in relatively large amounts and other minerals are required in small amounts. Those needed in large amounts are called microminerals.
Those needed in small amounts are called microminerals or trace minerals.
The microminerals include calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chlorine, sulfur, and magnesium. Calcium and phosphorous are needed for bone growth and other body functions. The blood contains, sodium, potassium, iron, and chloride. The microminerals include iodine, zinc, manganese, cobalt, copper, and iron.

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